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Research

Integrated navigation systems

Research works in this field are aimed at elaboration of effective structures of integrated positioning and navigation systems as well as navigation data processing algorithms for systems composed of GNSS receivers, inertial navigation systems (INS) and other navigational instruments. The integration enables significant improvement of parameters and functionalities of the systems as well as economic gains. The integrated systems offer the same or better quality and can be significantly cheaper than single instruments with similar parameters.

Integrated navigation systems
The main research activities include designing, testing and implementation of navigation data processing algorithms. These algorithms are diverse types of recursive Bayesian estimation algorithms, from simplest linear Kalman filters, linearized Kalman filters (LKF), extended Kalman filters (EKF) and unscented Kalman filters (UKF) to high complexity particle filters (PF). The research works include also simultaneous location and mapping (SLAM) algorithms which can be applied for navigation with use of camera or radar images in unknown environments without the map. The research in these fields consists in analytical works, concerning modelling systems and designing algorithms, computer simulations and laboratory tests.

 

The results of works in the field of integrated navigation systems can find its military and civilian applications in navigation of pedestrians, manned or unmanned ground vehicles, surface or underwater vehicles as well as aircraft. The navigation team from the Institute of Radioelectronics currently participates in a project supported by the National Centre for Research and Development, Poland, in the frame of Applied Research Programme under Research Project PBS1/B3/15/2012 (acronym WATSAR). The aim of the project consists in designing, manufacturing and testing of a technology demonstrator of a radar terrain observation system, capable of being installed and used aboard a miniature UAV. The problems solved by the team include constructing a high-accuracy and high-continuity navigation system for motion compensation of on-board SAR radar.

Surveillance Passive System of restricted areas, airports, harbours and cross-border operations

Electromagnetic (EM) emissions analysis in surrounding environment, with the use of whole range of analysing equipment and  systems, has become an object of research and development (R&D) project realised and financed upon agreement with the National Centre for Research and Development (NCRD), signed by the end of 2010. Nowadays, final results of the project are being verified and evaluated by the NCRD Commission.

Surveillance Passive Systemexp

R&D project named ”Surveillance passive system of restricted areas, airports, harbours and cross-border  operations" exemplifies cooperation of research institution – Institute of Radio Systems and economic private sector company – AM Technologies Ltd. A technology demonstrator of Surveillance Passive System as well as software for system management, surveillance of EM emissions and for source localization are the results of an above mentioned good cooperation.

Electromagnetic spectrum monitoring and surveillance is essential for national security. The objectives are closely related to the tasks of respective national services. The newly developed system seems to be addressed to national institutions and agencies:

-    Polish Armed Forces (counter-espionage operations, signal recognition and 24-hour signal monitoring),

-    Polish Border Guard (cross-border operations monitoring and interception of smuggling and criminal groups using radio systems),

-    Police (monitoring of criminal groups activity, evidence and testimonial recording), 

-    The Internal Security Agency (counter-espionage protection of national offices, foreign services agents revelation),

-    Government Protection Bureau (VIP zones and activity protection, transmitters detection in restricted areas),

-    Central Anti-Corruption Bureau (localization and evidence recording of EM emissions),

-    Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (airports protection),

-    Office of Electronic Communications (illegal emissions detection, emission parameters control),

 -    Search and Rescue Services (emission detection and source localization of distress signals).

Advanced radar signal sythesis and processing methods and techniques

Advanced radar signal sythesis1pngAdvanced radar signal sythesis2

Advanced radar signal sythesis3 

The research conducted in the Institute of Radioelectronics covers a wide spectrum of radar signal processing problems in terms of basic studies as well as application oriented projects. The main research goals concern complex radar signal synthesis and generation and advanced radar echo signals processing algorithms.

The signal synthesis problem, in its general form can be defined as search for a class of sounding signals (waveforms) having a priori determined properties. Advanced methods and tools such as Principle of Stationary Phase (POSP) or Zak Transform are used for waveform derivation. The application-oriented research concerns implementation of developed algorithms in specialised circuits with direct digital synthesis (DDS) as well as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) circuits.

In the field of radar echo signals processing, the issues of matched filtration, coherent Doppler MTI/MTD filtration, clutter standardisation, target coordinates estimation and fusion algorithms of elementary detections are considered.

Experimental research conducted in terms of computer simulation and field measurements allows for optimisation of developed algorithms for their implementation in digital signal processors (DSP) and FPGA units. Graphics processing units (GPU) are used for computation acceleration. The above makes the developed algorithms suitable for application in software defined radar (SDR) systems.

The results of the research are applied to military as well as civilian systems in cooperation with Polish radar systems producers.

Synthetic Aperture Radar

The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technique allows to achieve very high resolution images of the observed terrain comparable with aerial and satellite photography. A SAR image formation process is based on mutual movement between the radar and the observed objects. A SAR sensor is usually mounted on an aerial or a space vehicle. During the flight over the observed terrain the radar emits the sounding signals and collects the returning echo signals. Then, after covering a required distance the signals are processed as if they were received by a very long antenna.

The Institute of Radioelectronics MUT conducts the research on synthetic aperture techniques and algorithms since 2006. The area of the research covers modelling received echo signals, SAR image synthesis algorithms simulation and implementation and movement compensation (MOCO) algorithms development.Synthetic Aperture Radar

In 2012 the Institute of Radioelectronics in cooperation with WB Electronics S.A. was awarded a grant from the Applied Research Programme funded by the National Research and Development Centre. The aim of the realized project is the development of a technology demonstrator of SAR system for a miniature-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (Mini-UAV). In order to evaluate the assumed solutions and the projected radar sensor parameters, a laboratory model of a radar system has been built and preliminary experimental research has been conducted. The model uses a National instruments PXI universal measurement platform. The results of the experiments were presented on International Radar Symposium IRS 2013 in Dresden, Germany.

Ground Penetrating Radars GPR

 Ground Penetrating Radars GPR
Ground Penetrating Radar technology is non-destructive method of inspection of soil structure. Although the method operates usually at the depth in order few meters it possible to reach even one km (for geologic application). 

In the Institute of Radioelectronics the different fields of theory and construction of new kinds GPR, signal and data processing as well as radar imaging are studied. The Institute is getting to two dedicated laboratories and equipment including five GPR units basing on a different operating principle and having different parameters and abilities. The works on new construction of GPR antennas are also carried on.

Besides theoretical researches numerous of experiments are also proceeded in order to look  for new applications of the method like archaeology or dendrology.

In the photo the remote controlled multisensory platform with stepped frequency modulated wave GPR is shown. 

Multichannel acoustoelectronic gas detectors

Multichannel acoustoelectronic gas detectors
This field of Institute activity is developed together with Institute of Chemistry MUT. It concerns on different aspects of theory and engineering of acoustoelectronic (especially surface acoustic wave - SAW) gas and vapour sensors. The technology allows to detect also water solutions of chemicals as well as microorganisms in the liquid or gaseous environment.

The multichannel detection is a good base for construction of electronic analogue of olfactory sense (so called E-nose) or taste (E-tonque) in the case of detection of chemicals in liquids.

The technology is fast, repeatable and has sensitivity much more greater than its biological equivalents.

Having great practical potential the technology may find a great deal of applications in many field like military, police, coast guard, medicine, industry (food industry as well) and household. In the photo the part of 8-channel gas detector measurement system (in a front) is shown.

Microwave thermography and radiometry

Microwave thermography and radiometry
The passive microwave thermography is based on measurement of thermal radiation emitted by each body, which has the temperature higher than the absolute zero. Result of knowledge analysis of detection methods of thermal radiation in microwave range point at possibility use radiometer for distant source temperature measurement. Microwave radiometers site on planes and artificial satellites are generally use for the Earth radiometry and also cosmic radiation measurement. Microwave radiometers are used, among others, in medicine and special applications. In medicine they are used both in diagnostics and therapy where, for example, microwave radiometers control temperature in hypo- or hyperthermia or they monitor pathological states of internal organs. Special applications of microwave radiometers focus on passive location of military equipment like tanks, planes and the like. A separate group of applications deals with detection of humans or “hot” objects located behind shields. Thanks to use of microwave radiometers, non-invasive detecting and measuring of spatial temperature distribution inside a human body is possible while thermovision in the infrared range enables only to find  temperature distribution on the human body surface. Also, definition object absolute temperature is posible make use of a radiometer. So that it well be to apply in practice, analyse applicable radiometer system is indispensable and also definiction methods convert result measurement power of termal radiation reception from antena into value of absolute temperature.

Noise radar for Through-the-wall detection

Noise radar for Through-the-wall detection
In this question group, there are research works under the localization device (localizator), dedicated for hidden object detection behind the screen, invisible for the visible light and infrared. The device uses noise radar, working in  3 GHz frequency band. The transmitter of the radar generates signal noise with variable frequency bandwidth, from 500 MHz to 1000 MHz. The receiver realizes analog correlate detection, which enables precise distance to the object measurement. Exact distance measurement is realized due to analog delay line with electronically tuned variable length. The distance measurement precision is ±20 cm. The localization device enables object localization in azimuth coordinate too, thanks to using electronically scanned antenna array and digital signal processing.The main solving research problems concern on noise radar structure and processing algorithms investigation and implementation. This algorithms let living human activity detection, hidden behind non-metal screens, untransparent for the light, such as walls, ruins, collapsed buildings after construction catastrophe or acts of god. Living humans activity can be revealed  in many means, such as: person movement in the room, arm, leg or head move, chest move, connected with breast and move from heart beat at the end. This localizator feature lets distinguish in observed covered area living humans from static objects, such as furniture, rocks, rubble, etc. Due to this specificity, device can be used by many kind of services, connected with wide understood national safety. Areas of employment for noise radars include: anti-collision radars, object protection, move object detection, inaccessible objects reconnaissance and penetration, penetration of the objects , hidden in shallow soil layer, detection of living humans in covered or inaccessible areas.  

Microwave theory and technique

Microwave theory and technique
The modern world would be difficult to imagine without electromagnetic signals and microwave devices.  The quick contact with persons staying in other city or continent cannot be available without wide understudied microwave theory and technique. The plane cannot take-off and landing safely without  both onboard and ground navigation or communications devices, which works base on emission, receiving and processing microwave signals. Universal nowadays cell phones or navigation system GPS are only empty statements without microwave theory and technique. We cannot surf in global web during railway travel or car driving without microwave devices. We cannot using computer, because his heart – digital processor works with clock in microwave frequency band. Microwave theory and technique lets listen to radio, watch digital television and quick prepare meal using popular microwave oven. In the microwave theory and technique area, in Institute of Radioelectronics the investigations under modern microwave components are realized. They can be highlighted: microwave amplifiers, microwave detectors, two- or more outputs microwave dividers, directional couplers, in this Lang – type couplers, branch-line couplers and hybrid ring couplers. The last type couplers are especially interesting, because they can be realized in microstip line form, which is good managed in Institute of Radioelectronics. Additionally, in view of phase property, the hybrid ring coupler can be used as splitter or combiner. The works under microwave multiport circuits used in investigated instantaneous frequency and phase measurement systems are realized. This wideband circuits was used in monopulse direction finding system for microwave emitters. This device was used in light passive short range radars and light  portable 3D radar, which can localize antitank cumulative missiles. Results of the measurements on proving ground in realistic conditions confirm the validity of the theoretical assumptions.

Radar of the vehicle active protection system against the missiles with cumulative heads

Radar of the vehicle1Radar of the vehicle2 

The armed conflicts around the world show, that one of the most dangerous threats are anti tank missiles with cumulative heads. Very high speed an very small radar cross section of this kind of weapon make, that it is very difficult to protect vehicles and stationary objects against these missiles. The effective fighting against the anti tank threats needs the early detection and accurate localization of incoming missile with cumulative head. For this reason researches on radars for anti tank missiles detection are conducted in the Microwave Division of the Institute of Radioelectronics. Works on the algorithms of digital correlation with Fourier Fast Transform utilization and on digital quadrature correlation are also undertaken. The cardinal investigation problems concern the developing of the simulation model of the anti tank missile and its radar cross section RCS especially.  The worked out portable radar demonstrators worked with noisy-like signal and with pulse  signal estimate the direction and the distance to the missiles. Results of space observation can be shown on the display or they can be stored in the mass memory. These stored data are used for the following detailed analysis of received signals and for working out of more effective detection and coordinates estimation algorithms. Several models of the radar demonstrators were tested in the real condition in the open air. They detected and tracked anti tank missiles and then they tried to form the command for attacking missiles destruction.

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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